Archive for category Reference

Psychology of Negotiation — PsyBlog


An award-winning social psychology experiment reveals why we often fail to bargain effectively with each other.

Bargaining is one of those activities we often engage in without quite realising it. It doesn’t just happen in the boardroom, or when we ask our boss for a raise or down at the market, it happens every time we want to reach an agreement with someone. This agreement could be as simple as choosing a restaurant with a friend, or deciding which TV channel to watch. At the other end of the scale, bargaining can affect the fate of nations.

Big-scale or small-scale, bargaining is a central part of our lives. Understanding the psychological processes involved in bargaining can provide us with huge benefits in our everyday lives. In a classic, award-winning series of studies, Morgan Deutsch and Robert Krauss investigated two central factors in bargaining: how we communicate with each other and how we use threats (Deutsch & Krauss, 1962).

To do this, they used a game which forces two people to bargain with each other. Although Deutsch and Krauss used a series of different conditions – nine in fact – once you understand the basic game, all the conditions are only slight variations.

So, imagine you were a clerical worker at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in the late 1950s and you’ve been asked to take part in a psychology study. Every psychology study has a story, and this one revolves around two trucking companies…

Experiment 1: Keep on trucking

Before the experiment proper starts, the researcher explains that you’ll be playing a game against another participant. In the game you will run a trucking company. The object of the game is the same as a real trucking company: to make as much money as possible.

Like the real-life trucking company you have to deliver as many of your goods as possible to their destination in the shortest possible time. But in this game you only have one starting point, one destination and one competitor. It looks like a pretty simple game.

Here’s the catch.

The road map your one truck has to travel across presents you with a dilemma. You are the ‘Acme’ trucking company and your fellow participant is the ‘Bolt’ trucking company, although both of you have an identical problem. Have a look below.


[Deutsch & Krauss, 1962, p. 55]

As you’ll see there are two possible routes you can take from the start to your destination: the short and the long. Remember, time is money, so the longer it takes you to get to your destination, the less profit you make, which is the aim of the game. Unfortunately the short route has a major shortcoming: it is one-way. Only one of you can travel down it at a time towards your destination.

It seems you’ll be forced to work out some agreement with your unknown rival to share this one-way route so that you can both make money. How you’ll do this is another mystery, though, as there is going to be no communication between the two of you during the experiment. You are to be seated in a cubicle from where you’ll only be able to see the control box for your ‘truck’ and the experimenter.

Threatening gates

You are to be given one method of communication with your rival, albeit indirect communication. Each of you controls a gate at your own end of the one-way road. The gate, though, can only be closed when your truck is on the main route. This will be your threat. It is reinforced by the experimenter that you are out to make as much money as you can for yourself – the other person’s profit is not a concern.

Once the experimenter sets you off, it soon becomes clear you’re not going to make much money at all. In the first of 20 trials, both you and your rival shut your gates, forcing both trucks onto the alternative route. This is 50% longer and means you make a loss on the trip as a whole. In the second trial your trucks meet head-on travelling up the one-way road. You both have to reverse, costing you time and money.

The rest of the trials aren’t much better. Occasionally you make a profit on a trip but more often than not it’s a bust. You spend more time on the long route or reversing than you do chugging happily along the main route making money.

At the end of the experiment, the researcher announces how much profit you made. None. In fact you made a crippling loss. Perhaps trucking companies aren’t so easy to run.

Comparing threats

You find out later that you were in one of three experimental conditions. The only differences in the other two conditions were that in one there were no gates at either end of the one-way road. In the other there was only one active gate controlled by one player.

Before I tell you the results of the other two conditions, try to guess. One condition, which you’ve taken part in, contained bilateral threat – you could both threaten each other. One condition had unilateral threat – only one could threaten the other. And the final condition had no threat at all. What was the order of profit?

In fact it turns out that your condition, of bilateral threat, made the least profit when both participant’s scores were added up. The next most profitable was the unilateral threat condition, while the most profitable overall was the no-threat condition.

Here’s the first rather curious result. While the person who had the threat – control of the gate – in the unilateral condition did better than the person who didn’t, they were still better off, individually and collectively, than if they both had threats. What this experiment is showing is that the availability of threats leads to worse outcomes to the extent that unilateral threat is preferable to bilateral threat to both parties.

Experiment 2: Lines of communication

But surely a little communication goes a long way? You weren’t allowed to talk to the other participant in this experiment, so your trucks had to do the talking for you. Bargaining is all about reaching a compromise through negotiation – surely this should help?

To test the effect of communication Deutsch and Krauss (1962) set up a second experiment which was identical in all respects to the first except participants were given headphones to talk to each other.

Here’s the next curious result: allowing the two participants to communicate with each other made no significant difference to the amount of money each trucking company made. In fact the experimenters found no relationship between words spoken and money made. In other words those who communicated more did not manage to reach a better understanding with each other.

Like the experimenters themselves, I find this result surprising. Surely allowing people to communicate let’s them work out a way for them both to make money? And yet this isn’t what happened in the experiment at all. Instead it seems that people’s competitive orientation was stronger than their motivation to communicate. On the other hand, perhaps something specific to the situation in this experiment is stopping people talking?

Participants in the second study reported that it was difficult to start talking to the other person, who was effectively a stranger. As a result they were considerably less talkative than normal. Could it be that it was this situational constraint that meant little talking, and therefore little bargaining was going on?

Experiment 3: Forced communication

Deutsch and Krauss decided to test the effect of forced communication in their third experiment. Again the procedure is the same as last time but now participants are instructed that on each of the 20 trials they have to say something. If they don’t talk on one of the trials they are gently reminded by the experimenter to do so. They are told they can talk about whatever they like, as long as they say something.

The results finally showed some success for communication. Performance in the one-gate (unilateral threat) condition came close to that achieved in the ‘no-threat’ condition (remember the no-threat condition has the best outcomes). Forced communication didn’t have much effect on the ‘no-threat’ condition when compared with no communication, and neither did it improve the bilateral threat condition much. It still seems that people are so competitive when they both have threats it’s very difficult to avoid both sides losing out.

Threat causes resentment

The most surprising finding of this study is how badly people do under conditions of bilateral threat. In this experiment not even forcing communication can overcome people’s competitive streaks. Deutsch and Krauss provide a fascinating explanation for this.

Imagine your neighbour asks you to water their plants while they’re on holiday Socially, it looks good for you if you agree to do it. On the other hand if they ask you to water their plants otherwise they’ll set their TV on full blast while they’re on holiday, it immediately gets your hackles up. Suddenly you resent them. Giving in when there is no threat is seen by other people as pro-social. Duress, however, seems to make people dig in their heels.

Applying the brakes

Before drawing some general conclusions from these studies, we should acknowledge the particular circumstances of this research. Deutsch and Krauss’s experiment covers a situation in which bargaining is carried out under time pressure. Recall that the longer participants take to negotiate, the less money they make. In real life, time isn’t always of the essence.

The present game also has a relatively simple solution: participants make the most profit if they share the one-way road. In reality, solutions are rarely that clear-cut. Finally, our participants were not professional negotiators, they were clerical and supervisory workers without special training.

Real-life implications

Despite these problems the trucking game has the advantage of being what game theorists call a non-zero-sum game. In other words if you win, it doesn’t automatically mean the other person loses. When you total the final results, as you sometimes can in a financial sense, they don’t add to zero. In real life many of the situations in which we find ourselves are of this nature. Cooperation can open the way to more profit, in financial or other form, for both parties.

As a result the trucking game has clear implications for real life:

  • Cooperative relationships are likely to be much more beneficial overall than competitive relationships. Before you go ‘duh!’, remember that increasing proportions of the world’s societies are capitalist. Deutsch and Krauss’s experiment clearly shows the friction caused by competitive relationships, such as those encouraged by capitalism. I’m not saying capitalism is bad, I’m just saying competition isn’t always good. This simple fact is often forgotten.
  • Just because people can communicate, doesn’t mean they will – even if it is to their advantage.
  • Forcing parties to communicate, even if they already have the means to communicate, encourages mutually beneficial outcomes.
  • In competitive relationships, communication should be aimed at increasing cooperation. Other methods will probably create more heat than light.
  • Threats are dangerous, not only to other’s interests, but also to our own.

Remember all these the next time you are bargaining with your partner over a night out, about to shout a threat at a motorist blocking your path on a one-way road, or even involved in high-level political negotiations between warring factions with nuclear capabilities. It could save you, and the other side, a lot of trouble.

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Six Honest Serving-Men

I keep six honest serving-men
(They taught me all I knew);
Their names are What and Why and When
And How and Where and Who.

  • Rudyard Kipling
semantic-web: , ,

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Why Concrete Language Communicates Truth

Another pertinent post from PsyBlog, this time about communicating (mostly writing) effectively. Particularly relevant for consultants, but applicable for all employment in all fields. Click on the header below to go to the original article.

Have I said before that you should be subscribing to PsyBlog? Well, it is about time you did so – click here!

Speak and write using unambiguous language and people will believe you.

I’ve just deleted a rather abstract introduction I wrote to this article about truth. The reason? I noticed I wasn’t taking the excellent advice offered in a recent article published in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. That advice is simple: if you want people to believe you, speak and write concrete.

There are all sorts of ways language can communicate truth. Here are some solid facts for you:

  • People usually judge that more details mean someone is telling us the truth,
  • We find stories that are more vivid to be more true,
  • We even think more raw facts make unlikely events more likely.

But all these involve adding extra details or colour. What if we don’t have any more details? What if we want to bump up the believability without adding to the fact-count?

Just going more concrete can be enough according to a recent study by Hansen and Wanke (2010). Compare these two sentences:

  1. Hamburg is the European record holder concerning the number of bridges.
  2. In Hamburg, one can count the highest number of bridges in Europe.

Although these two sentences seem to have exactly the same meaning, people rate the second as more true than the first. It’s not because there’s more detail in the second—there isn’t. It’s because it doesn’t beat around the bush, it conjures a simple, unambiguous and compelling image: you counting bridges.

Abstract words are handy for talking conceptually but they leave a lot of wiggle-room. Concrete words refer to something in the real world and they refer to it precisely. Vanilla ice-cream is specific while dessert could refer to anything sweet eaten after a main meal.

Verbs as well as nouns can be more or less abstract. Verbs like ‘count’ and ‘write’ are solid, concrete and unambiguous, while verbs like ‘help’ and ‘insult’ are open to some interpretation. Right at the far abstract end of the spectrum are verbs like ‘love’ and ‘hate’; they leave a lot of room for interpretation.

Even a verb’s tense can affect its perceived concreteness. The passive tense is usually thought more abstract, because it doesn’t refer to the actor by name. Perhaps that’s partly why fledgling writers are often told to write in the active tense: to the reader it will seem more true.

Hansen and Wanke give three reasons why concreteness suggests truth:

  1. Our minds process concrete statements more quickly, and we automatically associate quick and easy with true (check out these studies on the power of simplicity).
  2. We can create mental pictures of concrete statements more easily. When something is easier to picture, it’s easier to recall, so seems more true.
  3. Also, when something is more easily pictured it seems more plausible, so it’s more readily believed.

So, speak and write solidly and unambiguously and people will think it’s more true. I can’t say it any clearer than that.

Image credit: Lee Huynh

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6 Easy Steps to Falling Asleep Fast

Another post from the PsyBlog, once again, re-posted with kind permission.
Something that we are all going to have to pay attention to at some time in our lives.

6 Easy Steps to Falling Asleep Fast

Post image for 6 Easy Steps to Falling Asleep Fast

Psychological research over three decades demonstrates the power of Stimulus Control Therapy.

Can’t get a good night’s sleep? You’re not alone. In surveys of what would improve people’s lives, a good night’s sleep frequently comes near the top of the list.

Poor sleep results in worse cognitive performance, including degraded memory, attention, performance and alertness. And in the long term insomnia is also associated with anxiety and depression. And people’s sleep gets worse as they get older. After 65 years old, between 12% and 40% of people have insomnia.

All sorts of methods have been tried to combat poor sleep, from drugs through psychological remedies to more outlandish treatments.

The problem with drugs is that they have side-effects and are often addictive. The problem with the more outlandish treatments is that although they tend not to have side-effects, we don’t know if they have any effect at all. Psychological remedies, though, combine the best of both worlds: studies show they work without side-effects.

Stimulus Control Therapy

Professor Richard R. Bootzin has been researching sleep disorders for many years at the University of Arizona Sleep Research Lab. Writing in the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, he describes the different psychological approaches that have been used to treat insomnia (Bootzin & Epstein, 2011).

Of these the most successful single intervention is called Stimulus Control Therapy (Morin et al., 2006). You’ll be happy to hear it consists of six very straightforward steps. If you follow these it should improve your sleep. After the list I’ll explain the thinking behind them. First, here are their six steps:

  1. Lie down to go to sleep only when you are sleepy.
  2. Do not use your bed for anything except sleep; that is, do not read, watch television, eat, or worry in bed. Sexual activity is the only exception to this rule. On such occasions, the instructions are to be followed afterwards, when you intend to go to sleep.
  3. If you find yourself unable to fall asleep, get up and go into another room. Stay up as long as you wish and then return to the bedroom to sleep. Although we do not want you to watch the clock, we want you to get out of bed if you do not fall asleep immediately. Remember the goal is to associate your bed with falling asleep quickly! If you are in bed more than about 10 minutes without falling asleep and have not gotten up, you are not following this instruction.
  4. If you still cannot fall asleep, repeat step 3. Do this as often as is necessary throughout the night.
  5. Set your alarm and get up at the same time every morning irrespective of how much sleep you got during the night. This will help your body acquire a consistent sleep rhythm.
  6. Do not nap during the day.

Why it works

This method is based on the idea that we are like Pavlov’s drooling dog. We attach certain stimuli in the environment to certain thoughts and behaviours. Famously Pavlov’s dogs would start drooling when a bell rang, because they associated hearing the bell with getting food. Eventually the dogs would drool at the sound of the bell even when they didn’t get any food. Replace the bell with a bed and food with sleep and conceptually you’re there.

If we learn to do all kinds of things in bed that aren’t sleep, then when we do want to use it for sleep, it’s harder because of those other associations.

This is just as true of thoughts as it is of actions. It’s important to avoid watching TV in bed, but it’s also important to avoid lying in bed worrying about not being able to get to sleep. Because then you learn to associate bed with worry. Worse, you suffer anticipatory anxiety: anxiety about the anxiety you’ll feel when you are trying to get to sleep.

So, this therapy works by strengthening the association between bed and sleep and weakening the association between bed and everything else (apart from sex!).

Other treatments supported by the research are progressive muscle relaxation, which is exactly what it sounds like, and paradoxical intention. This latter technique involves stopping people trying so hard to get to sleep. The paradox being that when people stop trying so hard, they find it easier to fall asleep.

All this assumes you don’t live next door to a late night drummer and you’re not downing a double espresso before hitting the sack, but those sorts of things are pretty obvious. Everything else being equal, though, Stimulus Control Therapy seems the easiest for most people to implement.

Image credit: Meredith Farmer

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Pascale and Athos 7S Model







Shared Values



The McKinsey consultants Anthony Athos, Richard Pascale, Tom Peters and Robert Waterman developed the 7S model as an analytical framework in the late 1970s when they researched organisational effectiveness.    The consultants developed a 360 degree model by linking strategy with organisational effectiveness.

7S Model Diagram

The 7S model consists of seven factors:

The integrated vision and direction of the company as well as the manner in which it communicates and implements that vision and direction.
The form of the organisational chart and interconnections between positions in the organisational hierarchy.
The procedures and routine processes required to perform the work, including the ways information moves through the organisation.
The personnel categories within the organisation, e.g. marketeers, engineers.
The characterisation of the ways key managers set priorities and behave in order to achieve the organisation’s goals.
The distinctive capabilities of the organisation as a whole.
The core beliefs underlying the organisation’s existence and its expectations of its members.  Values act as an organisation’s conscience and provide guidance in times of crisis.

The original intention of the model was to help guide thinking about organisational effectiveness in the broadest sense.  The 7-S model turned out to be an excellent tool for judging an organisation’s ability to implement a given strategy.

To be effective, an organisation must have a high degree of internal alignment among all seven Ss.  Each S must be consistent with the other factors for them to reinforce one another.    With the exception of the skills factor, all Ss are interrelated and a change in one affects all others.

Certain key factors such as staff, strategy, structure and systems can be changed in the short term.  The three remaining Ss — style, skills and shared values — are delayed factors that can only be affected long term.   Skills are both hard and soft.   Peters pointed out that true competitive advantage originates from these soft factors.

The model can be used as both a static checklist for analysis purposes and a tool to assess potential conflicts when a strategic program is implemented.

The original source for the 7S model is the book:

The Art of Japanese Management,
R. T. Pascale and A. G. Athos,
Simon & Schuster, New York, 1981
Publisher: Penguin Books Ltd; New Ed edition (1986)
ISBN-10: 0140091157
ISBN-13: 978-0140091151
The consultants developed a 360 degree model by linking strategy with organisational effectiveness

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Moving a WordPress site from one URL to another

If you want to move a WordPress site to a completely new URL, refer to (there are also instructions here: but the former site appears to be better) and perform the following:

  1. First, in the OLD site, do the following:
    1. Login to your site as wp-admin
    2. Go to the Administration > Settings > General panel.
    3. In the box for WordPress address (URI): change the address to the new location of your main WordPress core files (ie enter the NEW address in here)
    4. In the box for Blog address (URI): change the address to the new location, which should match the WordPress address (URI) (ie enter the NEW address in here)
    5. Click Save Settings.
  2. Now, copy the old site to the new site, using something like:
    1. cp -a <old-site> <new-site>
      1. PS, obviously have to have a shell into the server directory where the sites are located, or do it via FTP as appropriate
  3. Now, you should be able to use <new-site>
    1. Can optionally delete <old-site> or keep it as a backup

The other method outlined at the top of does work as well, but it sets the Admin screen in WordPress such that one can not change the URLs internally (one must edit the wp-config.php file).
Edit the wp-config.php file which is in the root directory of the WordPress installation, by adding the following two lines (anywhere, but suggest towards the top of the file):


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Environment Variables in Windows (Vista, XP)


Sometimes it is desirable to edit certain of the environment variables such as %PATH%. Or it may be useful to create a user-defined environment variable. Vista contains a command-line method SETX that provides a variety of options. It can be used to either create or modify environment variables. Variables can be in the user or the system environment. The command has a number of switches that make it useful in scripts. (Needs administrator privileges.)

Environment variables can also be edited directly in the Registry. They are stored in the same Registry keys as they are in Windows XP. System variables are in the key
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Environment
User-specific variables are in


SetX has three ways of working:

Syntax 1:

  SETX [/S system [/U [domain\]user [/P [password]]]] var value [/M]

Syntax 2:

  SETX [/S system [/U [domain\]user [/P [password]]]] var /K regpath [/M]

Syntax 3:

  SETX [/S system [/U [domain\]user [/P [password]]]]
       /F file {var {/A x,y | /R x,y string}[/M] | /X} [/D delimiters]


  Creates or modifies environment variables in the user or system
  environment. Can set variables based on arguments, regkeys or
  file input.

Parameter List:

  /S     system          Specifies the remote system to connect to.
  /U     [domain\]user   Specifies the user context under which
                         the command should execute.
  /P     [password]      Specifies the password for the given
                         user context. Prompts for input if omitted.
  var                    Specifies the environment variable to set.
  value                  Specifies a value to be assigned to the
                         environment variable.
  /K     regpath         Specifies that the variable is set based
                         on information from a registry key.
                         Path should be specified in the format of
                         hive\key\...\value. For example,
  /F     file            Specifies the filename of the text file
                         to use.
  /A     x,y             Specifies absolute file coordinates
                         (line X, item Y) as parameters to search
                         within the file.
  /R     x,y string      Specifies relative file coordinates with
                         respect to "string" as the search parameters.
  /M                     Specifies that the variable should be set in
                         the system wide (HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE)
                         environment. The default is to set the
                         variable under the HKEY_CURRENT_USER
  /X                     Displays file contents with x,y coordinates.
  /D     delimiters      Specifies additional delimiters such as ","
                         or "\". The built-in delimiters are space,
                         tab, carriage return, and linefeed. Any
                         ASCII character can be used as an additional
                         delimiter. The maximum number of delimiters,
                         including the built-in delimiters, is 15.
  /?                     Displays this help message.

NOTE: 1) SETX writes variables to the master environment in the registry.

    2) On a local system, variables created or modified by this tool
       will be available in future command windows but not in the
       current CMD.exe command window.
    3) On a remote system, variables created or modified by this tool
       will be available at the next logon session.
    4) The valid Registry Key data types are REG_DWORD, REG_EXPAND_SZ,
    5) Supported hives:  HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE (HKLM),
    6) Delimiters are case sensitive.
    7) REG_DWORD values are extracted from the registry in decimal


  SETX /S system /U user /P password  MACHINE COMPAQ
  SETX /S system /U user /P password MYPATH ^%PATH^%
  SETX TZONE /K HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\
  SETX BUILD /K "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows
       NT\CurrentVersion\CurrentBuildNumber" /M
  SETX /S system /U user /P password TZONE /K HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\
  SETX /S system /U user /P password  BUILD /K
       "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\
       CurrentVersion\CurrentBuildNumber" /M
  SETX /F ipconfig.out /X
  SETX IPADDR /F ipconfig.out /A 5,11
  SETX OCTET1 /F ipconfig.out /A 5,3 /D "#$*."
  SETX IPGATEWAY /F ipconfig.out /R 0,7 Gateway
  SETX /S system /U user /P password  /F c:\ipconfig.out /X

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Time Management

In the never ending quest to get more done in the shrinking time vortex, the following are resources of note:


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This is G o o g l e‘s cache of as retrieved on 15 Oct 2007 13:47:33 GMT.

A Hotlist of Internet Sites organized using Dewey Decimal Classification codes.

000 Generalities

  • 000 Generalities (427)
  • 010 Bibliography (60)
  • 020 Library and Information Science (47)
  • 030 Encyclopedias (14)
  • 040 Unassigned (0)
  • 050 Magazines (12)
  • 060 General organizations and museology (18)
  • 070 Journalism (44)
  • 080 General collections (9)
  • 090 Manuscripts and rare books (0)

500 Science

  • 500 Science (50)
  • 510 Mathematics (18)
  • 520 Astronomy & allied sciences (14)
  • 530 Physics (26)
  • 540 Chemistry (15)
  • 550 Earth sciences (28)
  • 560 Paleontology, Paleozoology (10)
  • 570 Life sciences (29)
  • 580 Botanical sciences (11)
  • 590 Zoological Sciences (50)

100 Philosophy and Psychology

  • 100 Philosophy (4)
  • 110 Metaphysics (2)
  • 120 Epistemology, causation, humankind (3)
  • 130 Paranormal Phenomena (6)
  • 140 Specific philosophical schools (2)
  • 150 Psychology (10)
  • 160 Logic (4)
  • 170 Ethics (2)
  • 180 Ancient, mediaeval, Oriental philosophy (0)
  • 190 Modern Western philosophy (1)

600 Technology

  • 600 Technology (10)
  • 610 Medical sciences, Medicine (131)
  • 620 Engineering & allied operations (81)
  • 630 Agriculture (27)
  • 640 Home economics & family living (80)
  • 650 Management & auxiliary services (54)
  • 660 Chemical engineering (7)
  • 670 Manufacturing (7)
  • 680 Manufacturing for specific uses (86)
  • 690 Buildings (5)

200 Religion

  • 200 Religion (6)
  • 210 Natural theology (2)
  • 220 Bible (1)
  • 230 Christian theology (1)
  • 240 Christian moral and devotional theology (0)
  • 250 Christian orders & local church (1)
  • 260 Christian social theology (1)
  • 270 Christian Church History (1)
  • 280 Christian denominations & sects (1)
  • 290 Other & comparative religion (3)

700 Arts and Entertainment

  • 700 Arts and Entertainment (38)
  • 710 Civic & landscape art (2)
  • 720 Architecture (11)
  • 730 Plastic arts, Sculpture (1)
  • 740 Drawing and decorative arts (38)
  • 750 Painting & paintings (3)
  • 760 Graphic arts, Printmaking & prints (6)
  • 770 Photography & photographs (5)
  • 780 Music (43)
  • 790 Recreational & performing arts (428)

300 Social Science

  • 300 Social Science (98)
  • 310 General statistics (6)
  • 320 Political science (29)
  • 330 Economics (97)
  • 340 Law (17)
  • 350 Public administration (28)
  • 360 Social services, associations (55)
  • 370 Education (123)
  • 380 Commerce, communications, transport (119)
  • 390 Customs, etiquette, folklore (15)

800 Literature

  • 800 Literature (42)
  • 810 American literature in English (9)
  • 820 English & Old English literatures (5)
  • 830 Literatures of Germanic languages (0)
  • 840 Literatures of Romance languages (0)
  • 850 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic literatures (1)
  • 860 Spanish & Portuguese literatures (0)
  • 870 Latin & Old Latin literatures (1)
  • 880 Hellenic literatures, Classical Greek (1)
  • 890 Literatures of other languages (1)

400 Language

  • 400 Language (11)
  • 410 Linguistics (14)
  • 420 English (7)
  • 430 Germanic languages [German] (1)
  • 440 Romance languages [French] (2)
  • 450 Italian, Romanian, Rhaeto-Romanic (1)
  • 460 Spanish & Portuguese languages (6)
  • 470 Italic languages [Latin] (1)
  • 480 Hellenic languages [Classical Greek] (1)
  • 490 Other languages (11)

900 Geography & History

  • 900 Geography & History (13)
  • 910 Geography & travel (74)
  • 920 Biography, genealogy, insignia (12)
  • 930 History of ancient world (6)
  • 940 General history of Europe (34)
  • 950 General history of Asia [Orient, Far East] (18)
  • 960 General history of Africa (7)
  • 970 General history of North America (14)
  • 980 General history of South America (4)
  • 990 General history of other areas (12)


About CyberDewey

The Dewey Decimal Classification is comprised of 10 Classes (Generalities, Philosophy, Religion, Social Science, Language, Natural Science, Technology, Art, Literature, and History). Each class is further subdivided into ten Divisions, and each Division into ten Sections.

This page displays the one hundred Divisions, each of which is displayed on a subpage. The numbers in parentheses show the number of links in each Division.

Related Materials:

  • My article Organizing Computer Resources tells the tortuous path I followed before discovering that Dewey is a robust, general-purpose way to organize just about anything.
  • The Subject Index contains an alphabetical list of the terms used in the division headings.
  • The FAQ contains pointers to other Dewey resources, some suggestions for using Dewey, and a status report.


Internet Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Mundie, David A.     CyberDewey: A Catalogue for the World Wide Web / David A. Mundie     Pittsburgh, PA : Polymath Systems  1995     1. Bibliography     011.3 dc-20                                         [MARC]

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