Pascale and Athos 7S Model


Strategy  

Structure

Systems

Staff

Style

Skills

Shared Values

 



 

The McKinsey consultants Anthony Athos, Richard Pascale, Tom Peters and Robert Waterman developed the 7S model as an analytical framework in the late 1970s when they researched organisational effectiveness.    The consultants developed a 360 degree model by linking strategy with organisational effectiveness.

7S Model Diagram

The 7S model consists of seven factors:

1. STRATEGY:
The integrated vision and direction of the company as well as the manner in which it communicates and implements that vision and direction.
2. STRUCTURE:
The form of the organisational chart and interconnections between positions in the organisational hierarchy.
3. SYSTEMS:
The procedures and routine processes required to perform the work, including the ways information moves through the organisation.
4. STAFF:
The personnel categories within the organisation, e.g. marketeers, engineers.
5. STYLE:
The characterisation of the ways key managers set priorities and behave in order to achieve the organisation’s goals.
6. SKILLS:
The distinctive capabilities of the organisation as a whole.
7. SHARED VALUES:
The core beliefs underlying the organisation’s existence and its expectations of its members.  Values act as an organisation’s conscience and provide guidance in times of crisis.

The original intention of the model was to help guide thinking about organisational effectiveness in the broadest sense.  The 7-S model turned out to be an excellent tool for judging an organisation’s ability to implement a given strategy.

To be effective, an organisation must have a high degree of internal alignment among all seven Ss.  Each S must be consistent with the other factors for them to reinforce one another.    With the exception of the skills factor, all Ss are interrelated and a change in one affects all others.

Certain key factors such as staff, strategy, structure and systems can be changed in the short term.  The three remaining Ss — style, skills and shared values — are delayed factors that can only be affected long term.   Skills are both hard and soft.   Peters pointed out that true competitive advantage originates from these soft factors.

The model can be used as both a static checklist for analysis purposes and a tool to assess potential conflicts when a strategic program is implemented.

The original source for the 7S model is the book:

The Art of Japanese Management,
R. T. Pascale and A. G. Athos,
Simon & Schuster, New York, 1981
http://www.amazon.com/Art-Japanese-Management-Business-Library/dp/0140091157/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1226384146&sr=8-1
Publisher: Penguin Books Ltd; New Ed edition (1986)
ISBN-10: 0140091157
ISBN-13: 978-0140091151
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smj.4250030413/abstract
The consultants developed a 360 degree model by linking strategy with organisational effectiveness

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